(12) In a few NENA languages the preterite from Class II verbs provides a good vocalism (m)CoCiC- or (m)CuCiC- with no predecessor in the earlier languages. Noldeke (1868, 213) suggested the modern mode was regarding the new Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he took it out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Forms which have o or you are absent outside NENA and get in several of the NENA languages: Hertevin, Sanandaj Christian, and Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) The entire introduce are designated of the a great prefix in most NENA except Hertevin plus Mandaic along with Turoyo. The newest prefix takes certainly one of around three forms: (a) k- into the the verbs (cutting-edge so you’re able to c- in Urmi, expanded in order to ko- in advance of consonants in Turoyo, as well as in Zakho are grams- ahead of a spoken phoneme); (b) k- however, only to your a limited category of verbs (with some voicing intake and sometimes other alter as well); otherwise (c) i- to your all of the verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, personal correspondence); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we perform say’, but doqIx-wa-ce ‘we do observe it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he takes, tend to eat’, however, sate ‘he beverages, have a tendency to, can get drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin i-zare:la ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu i-napli baro ‘they chase her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
This new k- prefix seems to be a survival of your own prefix qa- out-of BT, as in the ubiquitous qatane ‘he teaches’. age ‘stands’. In a number of eastern languages the brand new shipment from k- was limited to a little category of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In other people, it has got gone away and become replaced because of the an alternate prefix i-, and this most likely began since a lesser variety of i[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I goes to the brand new synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla da kIcca ‘I went to provide currency to help you a good girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) The new verb ‘give’ was yehav during the BT, and yav in Syriac. It’s been remade in all NENA dialects through the incorporation of the pursuing the l- ‘to’. The fresh new vital, which was hav for the Syriac and you may BT, are hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) in most NENA wherein You will find guidance, yet not during the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic.
(15) Throughout NENA, the fresh only one crucial out of qyama ‘get up’ has lost its last m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Christian qu (Panoussi, 110). New plural, not, retains this new meters.
(16) In all NENA, brand new crucial off (i)zala ‘go’ is irregular: Aradhin quand (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Religious state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani si (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) Round the NENA, many different conditions are utilized as foot having reflexive pronouns particularly ‘myself’. He could be: ruh- for the Hertevin and in Turoyo, nos- from the about three easternmost Jewish dialects, and gyan- about leftover dialects: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane https://datingranking.net/it/incontri-elite/ ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
That it qa- is actually in itself a beneficial contraction away from qa?
(18) A different preposition definition ‘to’ otherwise ‘for’ which takes the proper execution ta, tla, or tla is actually prevalent, regardless of if not common, for the NENA, but not found in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) concerned cook’ (Rubba, personal interaction), Zakho cuxa los angeles psIxle darga story ‘no you to unwrapped the entranceway to help you him’ (Meehan and Alon 1979, 182).